Everyone Can Tell You About A Teacher Who Was Caring, Knowledgeable, And Inspiring

Everyone can tell you about a teacher who was caring, knowledgeable, and inspiring. Most of us know from personal experience that being certified to teach is no guarantee that a teacher will do a good job with children, just as being licensed to practice medicine is not a complete assurance of quality patient care.

And yet, being certified to teach means something. At a minimum, it guarantees that the individual has been responsible for her own classroom, even if only for a few months under the supervision of a more senior teacher. It means that a teacher recently certified has passed a series of state tests of academic skills, content knowledge, and understanding of how children learn. She also probably has had some experience in diagnosing and teaching children with learning disabilities. Changes in certification requirements mandate that newly certified teachers be more academically skilled than ever before. Some states increased the number of required hours of liberal arts coursework in mathematics and English for prospective teachers, mandated a 3.0 grade-point average for entry into and exit from a teacher education program, and raised the minimum passing scores on many certification tests with highest standards for teaching certification.

Our analysis of data indicates that 93 percent of the English teachers were certified to teach, as were 95 percent of the social studies teachers, 87 percent of the math teachers, and 83 percent of the science teachers. The great majority of the certified teachers were teaching in their field; that is, they were teaching a subject for which they had taken content-area courses and passed the state licensure test. Out-of-field teaching among certified teachers was most common in science, where, for example, a certified biology teacher might be called upon to teach a course in chemistry or physics.

Of more concern is the large number of emergency-certified teachers who may have little college preparation for the subject they are teaching. Since the emergency-certified test takers are a self-selected group, we do not know how their academic skills compare to those who left the district without taking the test. Nevertheless, the data make clear that students have not been able to count on getting a teacher who has mastered basic academic skills. In addition, the low pass rates of emergency-certified teachers have contributed to high staff turnover, since those who can not pass the exam within a few years lose their teaching positions in the district. Finding ways to retain good teachers is another important task in providing students with a quality education.

High Attrition, Unstable Staffing and Recurring Vacancies

Some turnover is often desirable in the workplace, since new hires can bring fresh energy and ideas. However, there are a number of reasons why any school district should pay attention to its teacher turnover rate. At the most basic level, there are costs to a school district associated with recruiting and hiring teachers. In addition, schools receive a reduced return on their investment in professional development when teachers leave the district. Teachers also take away with them vital information about the students in their classes, knowledge that could have helped students’ future teachers determine placement and solve behavior problems. We differentiate those who depart the profession entirely from those who remain in teaching but switch to a different school. With these two categories combined, high-poverty public schools nationally have higher annual rates of teacher turnover (15 percent) than low-poverty schools (8 percent).

Each year, some teachers leave the district entirely; we call this “district-level turnover.” In addition, many teachers remain in the district but transfer to a new school. High levels of turnover at individual schools impede the development of a coherent educational program, institutional memory, and staff cohesion.

In recent years, the US has relied on emergency-certified teachers to fill hiring gaps, virtually guaranteeing a high level of new teacher turnover. Historically, emergency-certified teachers have been allowed to enter the classrooms with no prior training, not even a short summer course, and with college majors that were not always related to the subjects they were assigned to teach. Our data show that departure rates for emergency-certified teachers have been higher than for certified teachers; 42 percent of the emergency certified newcomers hired remained in the district three years later, in contrast to 51 percent of the new certified teachers.

Although emergency-certified teachers are more likely to leave the district, there is clearly substantial attrition among the new teachers who are certified. Some new teachers discover that they are not cut out to be in a classroom and decide to leave the profession after a few months or years. Others leave for more appealing jobs in suburban schools. A certain amount of departure from teaching is to be expected, since not everyone has the temperament, commitment, or academic skills to be a good teacher. But the high attrition rates for new teachers across the country suggest that either enormous numbers of new teachers have seriously misjudged their occupational skills and interests – which is unlikely – or something else is driving them from their first jobs.

Research conducted nationally attributes the high attrition rate of new teachers to dissatisfaction with compensation, working conditions, student discipline, and the leadership in their school buildings. High-poverty urban schools are especially prone to these problems. Data show that among new teachers who leave the profession after just one year because they were dissatisfied, more than three-fourths (76 percent) cite “poor salary” as the reason.

From a recruiting standpoint, district-level turnover is more relevant than school level turnover. But individual schools are affected by both departures from the district and transfers within the district. School-level turnover rates are higher than system-wide rates because schools suffer losses from those who depart the profession, leave the school system, or transfer to another school in the same district.

It is important to keep in mind that almost every public school enrolls a high proportion of low-income students. More than 21 percent of the teachers at schools with 90 percent or more low-income students had left their schools by the following year. Fifty-six percent of the teachers at these schools remained three years later. National data show a similar pattern of higher teacher turnover at schools with more low-income students. The disproportionate number of new teachers in the highest-poverty schools contributes to the high turnover rate, since new teachers are more likely to leave than veterans.

Tips to Teach Your Children to Save Water

Water is a necessity for survival.

Considering the rapidly growing population and the fact that water is a limited resource on this planet, it has become more important than ever that children understand the significance of water conservation from an early age.

Teaching children to save water at a young age will not only help you save on your utility bills but it will also foster an interest and concern in your children towards the planet.

That said, here are some tips to teach and practise water conservation at home with your children.

Get kids acquainted with interesting facts about water

Water conservation is a serious concern, but that doesn’t mean teaching children to save water can’t be fun.

There is a wide range of interesting facts about water you can tell your child, to emphasise on the necessity of water, such as:

• Water makes up to 70% of the earth’s surface. 90% of it is salt water, which is found in oceans and is not suitable for drinking.

• Only 2.5% of earth’s water is fresh water and 70% of the earth’s fresh water is frozen in glaciers and ice caps.

• The total amount of water on earth is the same amount as it was when earth was created, millions of years ago.

• 70% of human brain is composed of water and the average adult body is about 60% water.

• Water is available in three forms on this planet: solid, liquid and gas.

These were just a few facts and you can discover more such information about water on the web. Children are more likely to remember what they have been taught when they learn it through small pointers and factoids instead of long boring sessions.

Moving on to “dos” & “don’ts”

Education begins at home. Before your child gets to the chapter in their textbook that talks about water conversation at school, you can inculcate water-saving habits in your child by teaching them the following dos and don’ts;

• Do turn off the faucets tightly.

• Don’t leave the tap running while brushing or washing hands.

• Do take a shower instead of a bath as it uses less water. If you must take a bath, fill the tub with just enough water to cover the knees and not more than that.

• Don’t throw tissues, paper or candy wrappers in the toilet as it will use more water to flush those materials off.

• Do let parents know if you spot a leaky faucet, bathtub, water cooler or any other appliance that uses water.

• Do use water from leftover bottles, ice cubes, bathroom buckets and half-drank glasses, to hydrate the grass and plants.

• When not using sprinklers, do move the hoses to the grassy areas.

• When unable to finish the whole glass of water, save the remaining water in the refrigerator instead of pouring down the sink.

• Do use a mug and bucket of water to clean your bicycle instead of a hose.

Additional tips to encourage water conservation in children

• Whenever your child takes a water-saving action, reward them to make them feel positive about their deed and encourage them to keep doing it.

• Earth day and water day are great opportunities to teach your little ones to care for their planet and the importance of preserving the earth’s resources. So, keep an eye out for events being organised in your local region on these days and get your child involve in the celebrations.

• Suggest teachers and school’s management to organise educational camps and programs to teach children about water conservation.

• Encourage your tech-savvy children to look up for videos, tips and resources related to water conservation online. By allowing your children to search for water saving tips on the internet on their own, you will provide them a fun way to learn about importance of saving water.

• Involve children in your water management routine and practises like when you are searching for water leaks around your house, ask your children to join in and help you spot leaky areas.

Children are never too young to learn about the importance of water as a natural resource that humans need for survival. With these tips and practises, you will not only teach your child to use water wisely and prevent waste but also build a foundation of love and care for their planet.

I’ve Graduated From Beauty School, Now What?

Congratulations! You have just finished beauty school. Now what?

In a perfect world, you’d go to cosmetology school, learn how to maximize your talents, get your license and easily land a job at a high end salon.

That’s not typically the reality, though.

Don’t despair. You don’t have to be resigned to spending your days living from paycheck to paycheck. There are some things you can do to land a great job and I’m going to show you how.

1. Examine your goals. This is a simple step, and one of the most overlooked. You need to set professional goals, but first you need to look within yourself. What did you most enjoy about beauty or barber school? Do you have a talent for creating precision cuts? Are you extra creative with color? Can you apply makeup as if you’re an artist painting on a canvas? You need to identify your creative strengths and work with those. If there is something that you absolutely do not enjoy doing, then there is no reason for you to have to do it for the long term. Acknowledge your own strengths and market them. Do you want to be a master stylist one day? Is it your dream to be a top colorist? You need to think about these things when you are starting your job search. When you first start school you should have a road map of where you want to go and how you are going to get there. The earlier the better. When you set short and long-term goals it keeps you focused and on the prize.

2. Look the part. Appearance matters in the beauty industry. When you are heading into the salons, shops or spas for interviews, you will want to walk in as if you already work there. Make sure your hair and makeup are on trend and that you’re dressed the part. You want the salon hiring team to be able to picture you on the salon floor -right when they meet you. This will make you to appear more knowledgeable, professional, and confident. You may have heard this advice before mentioned in the corporate world. Interviewees are often advised to dress as if they already have the position for which they’re applying. The same can easily be applied to the beauty industry.

3. Keep on learning. What? You’re probably thinking…I just completed 18 months of school, but the truth is that learning never ends. You need to keep learning. This industry is constantly evolving. Make it a goal to regularly sign up for advanced classes. For example if you are sitting in your interview and you let the hiring professional know that you have just finished an advanced cutting class and that in two months, you’re attending a coloring course from a popular company, then you can and will be much more marketable to the Salon. You have to stay on top of the latest trends and techniques. When the salon sees that you are aware of this and is willing to keep learning, you will already have a major edge over the competition. In fact, another tip for when you are being interviewed is to ask the hiring professional about future educational activities planned for the salon.

4. Be willing to assist. Why should you even think of being an assistant when you have gone through your training and is ready to be on your own? If you have your heart set on being at an exclusive salon (which will equate to more pay, generally, with the higher cost of services), be aware that you most likely will not get hired fresh out of cosmetology or barber school. Salons of this caliber usually want you to prove yourself first. No one wants to be an assistant, but you would be under the direct supervision and training of one of the top stylists at the salon and he or she will give you valuable feedback about where your talents lie and how you can improve. This is a great way to get your foot in the door and land a full-time job all on your own.

5. Create a portfolio. It doesn’t have to be expensive, nor does it have to be too fancy. Grab your friends and family and take pictures to showcase your work and your abilities. If you can walk into the interview and have something to show the salon manager that highlights your talents, you will also have that extra edge to get the job.

6. It’s okay to start off at a chain. If you are having trouble finding a job, there is nothing at all wrong with working at a quick-paced chain. No, you will not necessarily have a chance to build a clientele or have that creative independence you would have at a larger, higher end salon, but this will keep you on target, especially in the cutting arena. You don’t want to put those shears down and stop using them. Practice, practice, practice. It’s what makes you better. If you need to, this is a great first step to heading you off on the career path that you desire.

How Police Find Latent Fingerprints-Iodine and Superglue Fuming – Part 4

Iodine and Superglue Fuming Methods

Review from Part 1 of this series:

The three contemporary methods used to develop latent fingerprints are:

  • Latent print powders: oxide, metallic, combination, fluorescent and magnetic powders
  • Chemical development: DFO, Ninhydrin, Silver Nitrate or Physical Developer
  • Fuming: Iodine and Superglue fuming

1. A latent fingerprint is one that is generally not visible unless it is treated in some manner. The print itself is composed of moisture-mostly water-but it also contains small amounts of the constituents of perspiration (sweat), like amino acids, lactic acids, creatinine, choline, sugars and uric acid.

2. The palms of the hands and soles of the feet are covered with friction ridges, and these ridges have sweat pores along their surface. Sweat from these two areas has one single kind of sweat glands: Eccrine glands. Only water and the substances listed above are exuded from these glands.

3. Other parts of the body have two other sweat glands: Sebaceous and Apocrine glands. Sebaceous glands exude fatty acids, glycerides and hydrocarbons. In other words these secretions are oily in nature. Sebaceous glands are associated with hair follicles. The Apocrine glands secret water along with ions of sodium, potassium, and iron as well as proteins, carbohydrates and cholesterol.

4. When the hands come into contact with the face and hair they become contaminated with this mix.

Iodine Fuming: Iodine crystals have a unique characteristic-when exposed to air above room temperature they begin a process known to scientists as sublimation. This process is when a solid like iodine crystals converts directly into a gas-iodine fumes. All it takes is a little heat to accelerate the sublimation process.

Iodine fuming is a process used to develop latent fingerprints on porous surfaces such as paper, cardboard and raw wood. Criminalists and crime scene investigators have found this to be a valuable tool for developing latent prints at the crime scene or the crime lab. But iodine fuming has a few shortcomings.

Iodine Fuming

The iodine method of latent print development is generally the first step in the attempts to develop latent prints that are thought to be reasonably fresh. The advantage of this method is that it is non-destructive to subsequent testing using other chemicals.

Iodine fuming requires no sophisticated apparatus in order to deliver its fumes onto a porous surface. Iodine fumes react to the sebaceous sweat secretions (oil) that contaminate the fingertips. Touch your nose, cheek, ears, arms and chest and you have these secretions on your fingers.

The iodine fumes develop latent prints that are orange to brown in color. This process works best on prints that are known to be fresh; like a ransom note, a holdup note handed to a bank teller or even a suicide note.

But as mentioned, iodine fuming has its shortcomings-mainly that the prints that do appear are fugitive-they begin to fade shortly after development; and iodine fuming only works on prints that are thought to be reasonably fresh. You will hear more on this in a moment.

SPECIAL NOTE: Iodine fumes are toxic. Take all possible precautions.

The fuming procedure is relatively simple:

1. Iodine crystals are placed in a confined area along with a document or other porous items. At the crime scene this can be a zip-top plastic bag. In the crime lab it can be a converted fish tank, or a fuming chamber specifically built for this purpose.

2. A low level heat source is used to begin the sublimation process. This can be simply your hand wrapped around the zip-top plastic bag containing iodine crystals or an inexpensive coffee warmer.

3. The iodine fumes are usually visible-a kind of purple haze. Once the fumes are seen, the heat source may be removed. Prints will be visible in seconds.

4. The next step is to remove the evidence being processed, and then photograph any visible latent prints. Be certain to include a scale that is visible in each shot. If the prints are reasonably fresh, they should remain visible for 15-20 minutes or longer.

5. Once photographs are completed, you may apply an iodine enhancer/fixative to the developed prints, which provides a permanent image.

Cyanoacrylate Fuming:

Back in the late 1970s members of the US Army Crime Laboratory in Japan were shown an interesting method for developing latent fingerprints on non-porous surfaces such as metal, painted wood, plastic and glass. Instead of using powders, members of the Japanese National Police Force used a material called cyanoacrylate to develop latent prints on most nonporous surfaces.

At that period of time this material was popularly known as Super Glue. The name Super Glue was once trademarked, but through common usage, the term superglue has become generic and several cyanoacrylate manufacturers use it to describe their product.

If you have ever used it, you know that cyanoacrylate has a very strong, noxious odor. You may have seen commercials long ago showing how a drop of this glue could bond an automobile to the hook on a crane, which lifted it off the ground. In any case, the glue does form a tight bond-provided there is a very thin film of moisture (water) on both surfaces to be bonded. And of course most surfaces on this planet have moisture on them as a result of humidity.

So how can this develop latent prints? It is really very simple. A process known as chemical “fuming” is used. The crime lab technicians will carefully place several items of evidence into an enclosure. Early fuming tanks were nothing more than fish tanks with a cover of some sort.

Several drops of glue are measured out into a fuming tray (usually an aluminum cup-like object). This is placed in the chamber and the chamber is sealed up. Development without any sort of acceleration takes several hours, but a small coffee warmer can be used under the glue to accelerate the process.

It is also possible to accelerate the fuming process by adding a few drops of the glue onto a cotton pad. To protect the surface of the floor in the fuming chamber, place the cotton pad on a piece of aluminum foil or one of the cups mentioned above. This is one very good reason for NOT wearing cotton gloves. Considerable heat is generated during the fuming process and may cause burns to the hands.

The glue fumes will circulate inside the chamber and will come in contact with the various items of evidence. The fumes will polymerize (turn into a solid) on any moisture on the objects-like fingerprint residue.

The resulting developed latent prints will be hard as a rock, and will conform to the ridge structure that the suspect left behind. The developed prints are white in color so visual and photographic contrast may be added on light colored surfaces using fingerprint powders or dye stains.

Many crime labs suggest that CSIs fume evidence with cyanoacrylate to prevent damage or loss of the latents during transport to the lab.

If you would like to learn more about crime scene investigative techniques, an abundance of information is available from this website.

Mobile App Development and Its Impact on the Education Sector

A study conducted in 2014 by researchers at Baylor University found that college students spent an average of eight to ten hours daily on their cell phones. Teens are no better, with 75 percent of them possessing smartphones and 50 percent of them expressing an “addiction” to their phones. A 2012 study found that teens between the ages of 14 and 17 send almost 100 texts in a day.

This just goes on to prove how tech-savvy the current generation of students is. They have an almost instinctual grasp of all things mobile, be it games or apps. So, it makes sense that kids learn faster when taught digitally via apps instead of the more traditional methods like printed books and blackboards. In fact, Open Colleges states that 81 percent of US teachers believe tablets improve classroom learning, while 86 percent think tablets make learning more efficient. All this has given fresh impetus to mobile app development in major tech hubs, such as Florida and California. But the big question is, to what extent can mobile app development help the education sector? Take a look below.

Efficient Learning Possible Due to Mobile App Development

New mobile applications that facilitate and improve learning have made teaching fun. Using mobile apps enables students to enhance efficiency and precision due to the following factors:

Independent Learning: Thanks to mobile app development, the learning process is no longer limited to the confines of the classroom. Students can now gain knowledge and resolve their queries from the comfort of their home.

More Options: The sheer variety of applications available for learners on their tablets or smartphones is astounding.

Easy Access to Administrative Resources and Knowledge: Educational courses become visually lasting thanks to e-learning applications.

Improved Student Engagement: Some apps enable students to learn from an audio-visual medium, thereby helping them to retain the information for longer periods. When an individual watches videos or listens to audio files, they begin to understand and retain a concept better than textbooks.

What Goes into the Making of Mobile Apps for Education

A lot more goes into the app development than just technical know-how. Money is at the top of the list. While the development tools are often free, things like licenses and associated servers incur considerable charges. This is why some educational institutions prefer to get the job done in-house; they hire mobile designers and developers to keep their apps up-to-date. Some institutions even outsource their work. There are applications that provide access to private information, like grades. These apps need secure coding. In fact, some institutions have begun to use single sign-on to assure both privacy and security of data.

One can prevent any mobile app development issues through proactive communication between the network security team and the developers. Some security teams even review the codes before launching apps. Once the app goes live, the biggest challenge for developers is to keep pace with the rapidly evolving mobile marketplace.

Mode of Development

Some institutions have resorted to the use of an open source middleware framework for creating apps for students and the faculty. Architecturally, this framework seeks to create a sort of mobile web page template and then make it available for various smartphone models. Thus, it all comes down to cross-platform compatibility. This makes sense as most mobile apps adopt a browser-based approach for promoting their application.

It was only a matter of time before the education sector went digital and mobile apps served to hasten the process. It comes as little surprise that mobile app development is in demand in Florida and other forward-thinking places. Using mobile apps makes teaching fun and learning easier for students.